Scorpion stings and scorpion envenomation is a major problem in some parts of the world, with large numbers of stings which are rarely fatal in children. The major region and relevant dangerous scorpions are:
  • Androctonus and Buthus : North Africa
  • Leiurus : Middle and Near East
  • Tityus: South America
  • Centruroides : Southern North America and Central America
  • Mesobuthus : Asia, especially India
  • Parabuthus : South Africa

Figure 1: Tityus serrulatus Photograph from CIT / SC Brazil


Figure1A_Tserrulatus.jpg
Tityus serrulatus


Figure 2: Bark Scorpion Centruroides exilicauda Photograph by Mike Cardwell
Figure1B_BarkScorpion.jpg
Bark Scorpion


Figure 3: Red scorpion (India) Mesobuthus tamulus Photograph by H S Bawaskar
Figure1C_RedScorpion.jpg
Red Scorpion (India)

Clinical Envenomation Syndrome
The majority of scorpion stings result only in local pain with only minor systemic effects. A small proportion (possibly about 10%) results in systemic envenomation characterised by neuronal hyperstimulation, including autonomic excitation (both adrenergic and cholinergic) and neuromuscular excitation. Severe and potentially lethal envenomation is characterised by pulmonary oedema, cardiogenic shock and central nervous system effects (coma).

Figure 4: Diagramatic representation of the pathophysiology and clinical features in scorpion envenomation.
Figure_ClinicalEffects_Path.jpg


Scorpion Antivenoms available worldwide

(Modified from Table 2 of Chippaux JP. Emerging options for the management of scorpion stings. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2012;6:165-73.)
Name
Manufacturer/Country
Antivenom Type
Species Covered/Immunised
Web Site/Contact
Alacramyn® (Mexico)
Instituto Bioclon
Mexico
Equine F(ab’)2
Centruroides limpidus,
C. noxius, C. suffuses,
C. meisei
http://www.bioclon.com.mx/
Anascorp® (US)
Instituto Bioclon (Mexico)
United States
Equine F(ab’)2
Centruroides limpidus,
C. noxius, C. suffuses,
C. meisei
http://www.bioclon.com.mx/
Faboterápico, polivalente alacrán
Birmex
Mexico
Equine F(ab’)2
Centruroides limpidus,
C. noxius, C. suffusus
http://www.birmex.gob.mx/
Soro antiescorpiônico
Instituto Butantan
Brasil
Equine F(ab’)2
Tityus serrulatus
http://www.butantan.gov.br/
Soro antiescorpiônico
Instituto Vital Brazil
Brasil
Equine F(ab’)2
Tityus serrulatus
http://www.ivb.rj.gov.br/
Suero antiescorpiónico
Centro de Biotecnología
Venezuela
Equine F(ab’)2
Tityus discrepans
http://caibco.ucv.ve/
Antiveneno escorpión
ANLIS Dr Carlos Malbrán
Argentina
Equine F(ab’)2
Tityus trivittatus
http://www.anlis.gov.ar/
Scorpifav®
Sanofi Pasteur
France
Equine F(ab’)2
Leiurus quinquestriatus
Androctonus australis
Buthus occitanus
www.sanofipasteur.com/
Androctonus crassicauda antivenom
Refik Saydam Hygiene Center
Turkey
Equine F(ab’)2
Androctonus crassicauda
http://www.rshm.gov.tr/en/
Sérum antiscorpionique
Institut Pasteur de Tunis
Tunisia
Equine F(ab’)2
Androctonus australis
Buthus occitanus
http://www.pasteur.tn/
Purified polyvalent antiscorpion serum
Vacsera,
Egypt
Equine F(ab’)2
Unspecified
http://www.vacsera.com/
Sérum antiscorpionique
Institut Pasteur d’Algérie, Algeria
Equine F(ab’)2
Androctonus australis
http://www.pasteur.dz/
SAVP scorpion antivenom
South African Vaccine Producers
South Africa
Equine F(ab’)2
Parabuthus transvaalicus
http://www.savp.co.za/
Polyvalent scorpion antivenom
National Antivenom and Vaccine Production Center, Saudi Arabia
Equine F(ab’)2
Leiurus quinquestriatus
Androctonus crassicauda
http://www.antivenom-center.com/
Polyvalent scorpion serum
Razi Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Iran
No information
Unspecified
http://www.sigma.ir/
Antiscorpion venom serum
Haffkine Biopharmaceutical Corporation, India
Equine F(ab’)2
Mesobuthus tamulus
http://www.vaccinehaffkine.com/