Mushroom poisoning can cause a wide range of clinical effects. The specific effects and degree of toxicity depend on the type of mushroom ingested, the amount ingested, whether the mushroom was cooked, the geography, and individual susceptibility to mushroom toxins. Mushroom poisoning is often classified according to the clinical effects and the species of mushroom involved. This reflects the nature of the toxins involved and aids in diagnosis and treatment (see Table).
Table: Classification of mushroom poisoning; species or genera involved, toxin and clinical effects, onset duration; GIT – gastrointestinal; CNS – central nervous system; ANS – autonomic nervous system; LSD – lysergic acid diethylamide
Classification
Genus/Species
Toxin/Effects
Onset of action
Class IA
Amanita spp.
Lepiota spp.
Galerina spp.
Amatoxins (cyclopeptides);
Hepatic toxicity
Delayed GIT
6-10 hours
Class IB
Cortinarius spp.
Orellanine
Renal toxicity
Delayed - weeks
Class II
Gyromitra spp.
Gyromitrin ;
CNS toxicity
Delayed
6 – 10 hours

Class III

Coprinus atramentarius
Coprine;
Disulfiram-type reaction
0.5 – 2 hrs
Class IV
Clitocybe spp.
Inocybe spp.
Muscarine;
ANS effects
0.5 – 2 hrs
Class V
Amanita muscaria (spp.)
Ibotenic acid, muscimol;
CNS effects
0.5 – 2 hrs

Class VI

Psilocybe spp
Gymnopilus spp
Psathyrella spp.
Psilocybin;
CNS effects (LSD like effects)
0.5 – 1 hr
Class VII
Chlorophyllum molybdites
Agaricus spp
Russula emetica
Omphalotus nidiformis
Uncharacterised GIT toxins;
GIT effects
0.5 – 3 hrs

Cmolybites.JPG

Chlorophyllum molybdites from Darwin region