Snake envenoming in South and Central America results in significant morbidity and mortality, despite the existence of antivenom to most venomous species.The most important group of snakes are the vipers (Crotalus, Bothrops and Lachesis) and there is only one group of elapids snakes, the coral snakes.

In South America 90% of venomous snake bites are due to bites by Bothrops species, and the remaining 10% are from Crotalus, Lachesis and Micrurus. In Central America, about half of bites are Bothrops species and the remainder a vipers with a very small number of coral snake bites.